Title: Placental histopathology in full term low birth weight new born babies in a tertiary care centre
Authors: P. Magesh, D. Sheeba, S. Ravi, Subashini S, Dhanya Varghese
Background: Placenta is a vital structure for fetomaternal circulation and it is directly related to growth and development of the fetus. Placental examination, provides important information regarding maternal complications, perinatal fetal death, perinatal fetal diagnosis and multiple pregnancies. Placental changes like infarct, syncytitial knots, fibrinoid necrosis, basement membrane thickening are associated with retarded growth of the new born.
Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly delivered placenta of full term low birth weight babies were examined for gross features and histomorphological features. Gross findings like weight of the placenta, attachment of cord, diameter, volume and shape of placenta were noted. Placental changes like infarct, calcification, syncytitial knots, fibrinoid necrosis, basement membrane thickening are associated with retarded growth of the new born also been evaluated in comparison to other studies.
Results: Fifty placentas from full term low birth weight babies were studied. Most of the mothers are in the age group of 22-27 years with primi contributing to 74%. Gross findings like marginal attachment of placenta contribute to 32%, eccentric attachment in 12% cases were noted. Microscopic findings like fibrinoid necrosis(64%), infarct(52%), calcification(36%), syncytial knots(76%)
Conclusion: Histopathological study of placenta is reasonably simple technique in identifying the pathological findings contributing to the low birth weight in full term mothers in addition to the clinical exmination. Gross features like attachment of umbilical cord to placenta and microscopic findings like fibrinoid necrosis, infarct, calcification, syncytial knots strongly attribute to uteroplacental insufficiency in full term low birth new born when compared to other histomorpholgical studies in the literature.