Title: Clinico-epidemiological profile of hemolytic anemia in children from a single center in a tertiary care hospital at eastern India
Authors: Dr Avantika Dhanawat, Dr Braja Kishore Behera, Dr Rachita Sarangi
Background: The hemolytic anemias are group of disorders characterized by increased destruction of RBC while bone marrow compensating for hemolysis by increased erythropoisis. Hemolytic anemias can be due to a corpuscular defect (mainly congenital) or due to an abnormal hemolytic mechanism (extrinsic abnormality).Among the congenital causes, Hemoglobinopathies and thalassemia constitute a major proportion.
Methods: A prospective study was carried out among 135 patients of congenital hemolytic anemia in IMS and SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. a tertiary care teaching hospital at eastern India for a period of one year. Detailed information on demographic pattern, clinical profile and hematological parameters were assessed.
Results: Out of the total 135 patients evaluated, it was found that the most common cause of congenital hemolytic anemia was sickle cell trait (35.5%) followed by sickle cell disease (30.4%) beta Thalassemia trait(17.9%), beta thalassemia major (7.4%). The mean hemoglobin was found to be lowest in beta thalassemia major (6.10mg/dl). The most common presenting symptom was hemolytic facies(53.33%) followed by growth retardation (49.62%). Most patients were residing from the district of Nayagarh (46%)
Conclusion: The incidence of sickle cell trait is relatively higher in comparison to other causes of hemoglobinopathies and is a major health problem in eastern area of the country.
Keywords: Beta thalassemia, Congenital hemolytic anaemia, Sickle cell trait.