Title: Pathophysiological changes in cord blood and placenta in anaemic pregnant women
Authors: Shahina Khan, Yogesh Tripathi, Yogesh Kumar Yadav, Dolly Rastogi
Background: Infant and maternal mortality has raised serious concerns since ages. Ongoing researches in this field aim to develop insights in successful maternal and infant health care programmes.
Objective: A comparative study of pathophysiological changes in cord blood and placenta in anaemic pregnant women with normal pregnant women.
Method: This study was conducted in the department of Physiology in collaboration with the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and department of Pathology, Govt. Medical College, Kannauj after taking permission from the institutional Ethics Committee. Sample size included 100 third trimester pregnant women of 20-40 yrs. Group I included subjects (n=50) with haemoglobin concentration more than 11gm/dl and group II included subjects (n=50) with haemoglobin concentration less than 11gm/dl. Haematological parameters (haemoglobin concentration, total RBC count, Blood Indices, total platelets count, total WBC count, differential leucocyte count in cord blood) and gross changes in placental morphology (weight, shape, surface area, thickness, no of cotyledons) and histopathological changes (syncytial knot formation, fibrinoid necrosis, syncytial trophoblastic proliferation, hyalinised villi, calcification in placenta) were duly studied.
Results: Hb concentration, RBC count, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Absolute neutrophil count, Absolute lymphocyte count were significantly lower in anaemic mothers, but no statistical significant differences were noted between mother’s and her cord blood investigations.The placental weight, thickness, surface area were significantly higher in anaemic group. In anaemic group, more mean number of cotyledons were observed. Calcified areas, Syncytial knot formation, Fibrinoid necrosis, hyalinised villi, perivillous fibrin deposition, intervillous space, hypovascular villi were seen significantly more in anaemic group as compared to normal group.
Conclusion: Anaemia in pregnancy influence haematological changes in cord blood and morphology of placenta which in turn adversely affect the perinatal outcome.
Keywords: Anaemia, Placenta, Cord blood, Third Trimester.