Title: Clinical Profile of Metastatic Cancer to the Brain in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Authors: Kannan Jayaraman, Ramya Rangarajan
Metastatic cancer to the brain is associated with a very grave prognosis. Secondaries brain is the most common adult intracranial neoplasm(1). Around 10% of cancer patients can develop brain metastases at some point during their lifetime(2,3). The incidence of brain metastases seems to be on the rise due to better treatment of primary disease, longer survival of cancer patients due to effective treatment modalities and advanced imaging technologies.
Certain primary cancers like lung, breast, renal cell cancer and melanoma have an increased propensity to metastasise to the brain. Lung cancer is the most common malignancy to metastasise to the brain accounting for 40-50%(4) of brain metastases followed by breast cancer (15-25%), melanoma (5-25%) and renal cell cancer (5-10%). Synchronous metastases in other sites are commonly seen with brain metastases. Isolated brain metastases in the absence of other systemic sites are rare. Isolated metastasis in the brain without a detectable primary cancer is seen in about 5 – 10%(5).
The most common site of metastases is in the supratentorial region. 80% of metastases occur in the cerebral hemispheres(4,6). Cerebellum and brainstem account for 15% and 5% of metastatic sites. Patients commonly present with headache, vomiting, blurring of vision, seizures and neurologic deficits. The median survival of patients with brain metastases without treatment is 1 month.
In this study, we analysed the clinical profile of brain metastases patients who presented to department of oncology from May 2013 to May 2015.
Materials and Methods
We analysed the case records of brain metastases patients who attended the department of oncology between May 2013 and May 2015. Age, gender, clinical presentation, primary site, histopathology of primary, median duration from diagnosis of cancer to brain metastases, site of metastases, treatment given were recorded.