Title: A cross-sectional study on pattern of ocular morbidity and the prevalence of refractive errors among school children of 11 to 16 years in the rural area of Maner, Patna Bihar, India
Authors: Dr Seema Kumari, Dr Dharmvir Ranjan Bharati, Dr D K Yadava, Dr Sanjay Kumar Choudhary
Background: Ocular morbidity is one of the recognized causes of poor performance and a source of performance anxiety among school children. Refractive error is one of the most common causes of visual impairment around the world and the second leading cause of treatable blindness.
Objective: To assess the magnitude of common ophthalmic morbid conditions as well as refractive error among rural schoolchildren and to determine the association between refractive error and variables such as Age, sex, type of family, religion, dietary habits, and daily activities such as watching television and using computers/smart phone.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 252 rural school students belongs to seventh to tenth standards between January to May 2018. Sample size was calculated to be 252. Probability proportionate to size of the population (PPS) technique was used for selection the study participants. Snellen chart was used to detect refractive error. χ2-test was used for statistical analysis and P value of <0.05 was taken as significant.
Result: Total number of respondents was 252. Overall prevalence of refractive error was 18.3. Refractive error was positively associated with school student belongs to nuclear type family, watching television and using computers or smart phone and not playing outdoor game or playing for less than one hour.
Conclusion: Parents, teachers and students, must be educated about the early detection of refractive error and correction with spectacles to prevent progression of visual impairment as well as preventive and promotive efforts need to be directed towards healthy lifestyle of future generation.
Keywords: Ocular morbidity, refractive error, prevalence, school students.