Title: Study of Prevalence and Spectrum of Congenital Anomalies in Muzaffarpur, Bihar: A Hospital Based Longitudinal Study
Authors: Amrita Pritam, Pallawi Singh, Sanjeev Kumar
Objective: Congenital anomalies are defined as structural or functional anomalies that occur during intrauterine life and can be identified antenatally, at birth or later in life. Congenital malformations are becoming increasingly important and are the leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Neonatal morbidity and mortality is a matter of great concern in our society in context of health care delivery system. The occurrence and pattern of presentation vary from region to region. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence and types of congenital anomalies in newborns and to study the associated factors.
Materials and Methods: This longitudinal hospital based study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, at S.K. Medical College and Hospital, Muzaffarpur, Bihar. Total 100 cases of congenital malformation, detected antenatally or after delivery, were analyzed within a study period of April 2016 to March 2017. All the relevant information’s were collected by conducting an interview using a predesigned questionnaire. A thorough post-natal screening and examination was performed and anomalies were recorded.
Result: Total 100 cases of anomalies were studied out of 9060 pregnancies. The prevalence of congenital malformation was 1.10%. Most common age group with congenital anomalies were 20-30 years (63%). Most of the anomalous babies (74%) were born to multigravida mothers. Commonest system involved was central nervous system (44%). Maximum (60%) babies were diagnosed to have anomalies in the postpartum period. Amniotic fluid abnormalities were the most commonly (56%) associated maternal conditions. 63% of cases had history of absence of intake of peri conceptional folic acid intake.
Conclusion: Congenital anomalies are important causes of still births and infant mortality, and also contribute to childhood morbidity. The study helped to know the pattern of congenital anomalies and the presence of various associated factors. This study showed the need and importance of peri conceptional folic acid intake and significance of prenatal diagnosis through screening tests and targeted scans in first and second trimester as an important step to reduce its prevalence.
Keywords: Antenatal visit, congenital anomalies, prenatal diagnosis.