Title: The Effect of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (G6PDd) and Haemoglobin Variants on Malaria in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Authors: Susanna O. Akwuebu, Evelyn M. Eze, Zacchaeus A. Jeremiah
The burden of the disease due to malaria is believed to share the same geographical distribution that correlates with G6PD deficiency and sickle cell haemoglobin (HbSS) due to protective advantage against malaria parasites. This study was aimed at studying the interactions between G6PD and haemoglobin variants in sub-clinical malaria infected pregnant women. Five millilitres (5ml) of venous blood was collected aseptically into 1% diamine tetraacetic acid bottle and carefully mixed for the analysis. G6PD activity was measured quantitatively with 3000 BSA spectrophotometer using the Randox G6PD kit. Malaria parasite density was determined microscopically using thick and thin Giemsa stained blood smears. Determination of haemoglobin variants was done using cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis with Tris-EDTA-borate buffer (pH 8.9). All results were analysed using measure of significance taken as p values, that is (p>0.05) was regarded as insignificance while p<0.05 was regarded as significant. A total of eight hundred and twenty-eight (828) participated in the study. Of these, five hundred and seven 507 (61.2%) were infected with malaria parasite and three hundred and twenty-one (321) (38.8%) served as controls (uninfected subjects). HbAA genotype took dominance in malaria parasite infestation, 379 (74.8%), then HbAS 126 (24.9%) and HbSS 2 (0.4%). The mean age of the study participant was 29.5+5.31 years. Also, five hundred and seventeen 517 (62.4%) were G6PD deficient out of the eight hundred and twenty eight participants. The mean value of G6PD levels for HbSS was significantly elevated at 12.20+0.30u/gHb compared to HbAS, 6.28+0.16u/gHb and HbAA, 6.60+0.07u/gHb. It is therefore concluded that co-inheritance of G6PD and HbS has no advantage over single inheritance of HbS variant.
Keywords: G6PD deficiency, Haemoglobin variant, Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.